Computer Glossary - Free tutorials and references for SOAP, XML-RPC, Web PDF. Portable Document Format, a format presented by Adobe Acrobat that. In , when IBM publicly introduced the first mass produced, electric computer, they never would have imagined that computers would advance to what they. Android It is a linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
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Computer Glossary p1. This is an information box to display short and snappy findings to your learners. The information box should always be accompanied by . Dictionary of computer and Internet terms / Douglas A. Downing,. Michael A. Covington, Melody Mauldin Covington. — 10th ed. p. cm. ISBN COMPUTER BASICS - TERMINOLOGY. Application – A computer program that does specific tasks such as word processing or spreadsheets. Bit – Represents a .
Macro A script that operates a series of commands to perform a function. It is set up to automate repetitive tasks. Mac OS An operating system with a graphical user interface, developed by Apple for Macintosh computers. Current System X. Operating system for increased performance and stability. Megabyte MB Equal to 1,, bytes, usually rounded off to one million bytes also called a meg. Memory Temporary storage for information, including applications and documents. The information must be stored to a permanent device, such as a hard disc or CD-ROM before the power is turned off, or the information will be lost.
Computer memory is measured in terms of the amount of information it can store, commonly in megabytes or gigabytes. Menu A context-related list of options that users can choose from. Menu bar The horizontal strip across the top of an application's window. Each word on the strip has a context sensitive drop-down menu containing features and actions that are available for the application in use.
Merge To combine two or more files into a single file. MHz An abbreviation for Megahertz, or one million hertz. One MHz represents one million clock cycles per second and is the measure of a computer microprocessor's speed. For example, a microprocessor that runs at MHz executes million cycles per second. Each instruction a computer receives takes a fixed number of clock cycles to carry out, therefore the more cycles a computer can execute per second, the faster its programs run.
Megahertz is also a unit of measure for bandwidth. Microprocessor A complete central processing unit CPU contained on a single silicon chip. Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed. Modem A device that connects two computers together over a telephone or cable line by converting the computer's data into an audio signal.
Modem is a contraction for the process it performs : modulate-demodulate. Monitor A video display terminal. Mouse A small hand-held device, similar to a trackball, used to control the position of the cursor on the video display; movements of the mouse on a desktop correspond to movements of the cursor on the screen.
MP3 Compact audio and video file format. The small size of the files makes them easy to download and e-mail. Format used in portable playback devices. Multimedia Software programs that combine text and graphics with sound, video, and animation. A multimedia PC contains the hardware to support these capabilities. Software used to navigate the Internet. Most computers use combinations of eight bits, called bytes, to represent one character of data or instructions. For example, the word cat has three characters, and it would be represented by three bytes.
A small data-memory storage area that a computer can use to instantly re-access data instead of re-reading the data from the original source, such as a hard drive. Browsers use a cache to store web pages so that the user may view them again without reconnecting to the Web.
The instructions stored in a computer that will be translated to very precise operating instructions to a robot, such as for assembling cars or laser-cutting signage. Compact Disc Read-Only Memory, an optically read disc designed to hold information such as music, reference materials, or computer software.
Common Gateway Interface, a programming standard that allows visitors to fill out form fields on a Web page and have that information interact with a database, possibly coming back to the user as another Web page.
CGI may also refer to Computer-Generated Imaging, the process in which sophisticated computer programs create still and animated graphics, such as special effects for movies. Typing text into a message box on a screen to engage in dialogue with one or more people via the Internet or other network.
A tiny wafer of silicon containing miniature electric circuits that can store millions of bits of information. A single user of a network application that is operated from a server. The program's main component the data resides on a centralized server, with smaller components user interface on each client. A person who breaks in to a computer through a network, without authorization and with mischievous or destructive intent.
A hardware or software problem that causes information to be lost or the computer to malfunction. Sometimes a crash can cause permanent damage to a computer. A moving position-indicator displayed on a computer monitor that shows a computer operator where the next action or operation will take place.
Slang for internet ie. An international conglomeration of interconnected computer networks. Begun in the late s, it was developed in the s to allow government and university researchers to share information.
The Internet is not controlled by any single group or organization. Its original focus was research and communications, but it continues to expand, offering a wide array of resources for business and home users. A collection of similar information stored in a file, such as a database of addresses.
This information may be created and stored in a database management system DBMS. The pre-defined configuration of a system or an application. In most programs, the defaults can be changed to reflect personal preferences. The main directory of the user interface.
Desktops usually contain icons that represent links to the hard drive, a network if there is one , and a trash or recycling can for files to be deleted. It can also display icons of frequently used applications, as requested by the user. The production of publication-quality documents using a personal computer in combination with text, graphics, and page layout programs.
A hard disc stores vast amounts of data. It is usually inside the computer but can be a separate peripheral on the outside. Hard discs are made up of several rigid coated metal discs. Currently, hard discs can store 15 to 30 Gb gigabytes.
A floppy disc, 3. The 3. There is also an intermediate-sized floppy disc, trademarked Zip discs, which can store megabytes of data.
The domain name appears in URLs to identify web pages or in email addresses. For example, the email address for the First Lady is first. Each domain name ends with a suffix that indicates what top level domain it belongs to. These are: Domain suffixes may also indicate the country in which the domain is registered. No two parties can ever hold the same domain name. The name of a network or computer linked to the Internet. The process of transferring information from a web site or other remote location on a network to the computer.
It is possible to download a file which include text, image, audio, video and many others. A menu window that opens vertically on-screen to display context-related options. Also called pop-up menu or pull-down menu.
Digital Subscriber Line, a method of connecting to the Internet via a phone line. A DSL connection uses copper telephone lines but is able to relay data at much higher speeds than modems and does not interfere with telephone use. An electronic usually hand-held reading device that allows a person to view digitally stored reading materials. Electronic mail; messages, including memos or letters, sent electronically between networked computers that may be across the office or around the world.
A text-based expression of emotion created from ASCII characters that mimics a facial expression when viewed with your head tilted to the left. Here are some examples:. The process of transmitting scrambled data so that only authorized recipients can unscramble it.
For instance, encryption is used to scramble credit card information when downloads are made over the Internet. A set of security programs that protect a computer from outside interference or access via the Internet. A structure for containing electronic files. In some operating systems, it is called a directory.
Software created by people who are willing to give it away for the satisfaction of sharing or knowing they helped to simplify other people's lives. It may be free-standing software, or it may add functionality to existing software. File Transfer Protocol, a format and set of rules for transferring files from a host to a remote computer.
An Internet search tool that allows users to access textual information through a series of menus, or if using FTP, through downloads. Graphical User Interface, a system that simplifies selecting computer commands by enabling the user to point to symbols or illustrations called icons on the computer screen with a mouse.
Software that allows networked individuals to form groups and collaborate on documents, programs, or databases. A person with technical expertise who experiments with computer systems to determine how to develop additional features. Hackers are occasionally requested by system administrators to try and break into systems via a network to test security. The term hacker is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with cracker.
A hacker is called a white hat and a cracker a black hat. The physical and mechanical components of a computer system, such as the electronic circuitry, chips, monitor, disks, disk drives, keyboard, modem, and printer. The main page of a Web site used to greet visitors, provide information about the site, or to direct the viewer to other pages on the site.
Hypertext Markup Language, a standard of text markup conventions used for documents on the World Wide Web. Browsers interpret the codes to give the text structure and formatting such as bold, blue, or italic. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, often used in intracompany internet sites. Passwords are required to gain access.
Text or an image that is connected by hypertext coding to a different location. By selecting the text or image with a mouse, the computer jumps to or displays the linked text. A system for organizing text through links, as opposed to a menu-driven hierarchy such as Gopher. Most Web pages include hypertext links to other pages at that site, or to other sites on the World Wide Web. Symbols or illustrations appearing on the computer screen that indicate program files or other computer functions.
A device, such as a keyboard, stylus and tablet, mouse, puck, or microphone, that allows input of information letters, numbers, sound, video to a computer. A chat application that allows two or more people to communicate over the Internet via real-time keyed-in messages. File Manager The file manager is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems File Server A computer on a network that stores the Programs and data files shared by the users of the Firewall A security system usually consisting of hardware and software that prevents unauthorised persons from accessing certain parts of a programme database or network.
Firmware Firmware is a technology which has the combination of both hardware and software. It provides necessary instructions for how the device communicates with others computer hardware. Flash Memory It is a type of non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Floating-point Numbers Signed numbers held in a traction exponent format.
Floppy disk A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible i. Flowcharts Flowcharts are the means of visually representing the flow of data through an information processing system, the operations an performed within the system and the sequence in which they arc performed.
Foreign Key A field in a database table.
The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing. The components were very simple and provided the programmer with low-level access to the computer's innards. Format To set margins, tabs, font or line spacing in layout of a document. Frame The basic packages of information on a network channel Frequency The number of oscillations of a signal per unit of time. It is usually expressed in cycles per second cps or hertz Hz..
Freeware A form of software distribution where the author retains copyright of the software but makes the program available to others at no cost.
Function Key A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal devices keyboard that is used to perform specjic functions. These keys are programmable so that a software product can put the function keys to specific uses.
Many keyboards have function keys labelled from F1 to Fl0. Gateway A device that is used to joint together two networks having different base protocols. Gigabyte A gigabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one billion bytes Gigahertz GHz A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One gigahertz is equal to 1 billion cycles per second. Glitch A hardware problem that causes a computer to malfunction or crash.
Gopher A protocol used for locating and transferring information on the internet. It is an internet search tool that allows users to access textual information. Graphic Interchange Format GIF A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly. Graphical User Interface A Graphical User Interface or GUI is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
Groupware It is a software that allows networked individual to form groups and collaborate on documents, programs or database.
H Hacker A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems. Hard Disk A hard disk is a non-volatile data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface layered onto disk platters. Hardware The mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical components that comprises a computer system such as CPU, monitor, keyboard and mouse, etc.
High-Level Programming Languages A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly. Hit A single request for information made by a client computer from a web server Home Page A starting point or a doorway to the website.
It refers to the web page that identifies a website and contains the hyperlink to other web page in the website. Host Computer A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the internet. Every host computer has its own unique host name Hub A network device that connects multiple computers on a LAN, so that they can communicate with one another. Hyperlink An image or portion of text on a web page that is linked to another web page.
Hybrid Computer Hybrid computers are made by taking the best features of the analog computer and digital computer. A simple example of this type is the computer used in hospitals. I Icon A symbol such as picture or a folder that represents a certain function on your computer. When the user clicks on the icon, the appropriate function is executed. Impact Printers Impact printers transfer the image onto paper through a printing mechanism that strikes the paper called ribbon.
Examples of impact printers are dot matrix printers and daisy wheel printers.
Information Information is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose. Ink-Jet Printer In an ink-jet printer.
Individual nozzles in the printing head produce high resolution characters. Input In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it. This information is given to the computers through an input device such as keyboard, mouse, scanner etc.
Instant Messaging IM A chat program that lets people communicate over the internet in real time. Instruction A command or order given to a computer to perform a task. Instruction Cycle Fetching and decoding operations of the machine cycle. Interface A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
Intelligent Terminal Intelligent terminals are those which necessarily have processing power and non-volatile data storage space. Interpreter A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.
Joystick A joystick is a computer peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer. K Kernel It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.
Keyboard This is the standard input device attached to all computers. It also Contains some extra command keys and function keys.
Key Field A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another. Kilobyte A kilobyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to bytes. It is commonly abbreviated KB. They are either in the same building or within a smaller area.
Landscape A printer feature, generally controlled by software, which rotates the output image by to print across the length rather than the width of the paper. Laptop Laptop is a small, lightweight and portable battery-powered computers that can fit onto your lap. They each have a thin, flat and liquid crystal display screen. LASER Printer A computer-driven photocopier that creates an original image of the text or graphics from the output of the computer onto a paper.
Link A communication path between two nodes or channel. LINUX Linux is an open source operating system, meaning that the source code of the operating system is freely available to the public. List Processing LISP A high level programming language suitable for handling logical operations and non numeric applications. Loop A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs. M Machine Language The language of computer also called binary language.
Instructions in this language are written as a sequence of O's and l's. Macro A script that operates a series of commands to perform a function. It is set up to automate repetitive tasks. Mainframe Sometimes it's called a server or CPU Mostly a mainframe is only a mainframe when compared to a desktop computer. It is bigger and much more powerful. Malware It a software that disrupts normal computer functions or sends a users personal data without the users authorisatinn. Megabyte MB 1 Megabyte is equal to bytes usually rounded off to one million bytes.
It is also called a 'meg'. Memory Temporary storage for information, including applications and documents. Computer memory is measured in terms of the amount of information it can store, commonly in megabytes or gigabytes. Menu Bar The horizontal strip across the top of an application's window. Each word on the strip has a context sensitive drop-down menu containing features and actions that are available for the application in use.
Merge Combining two or more files into a single file. Metadata Data about data, i. It is stored in a data dictionary and repository. Microcomputer A microprocessor-based computer, consisting of an MPU, internal semiconductor memory, input and output sections and a system bus, all on one, or several monolithic IC chips inserted into one or several PC boards.
It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument's output. Minicomputer Considered to be more capable than a microcomputer but less powerful than a mainframe. Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed.
Mnemonic A symbolic label or code remainder that assists the user in remembering a specific operation or command in assembly language. Monitor The visual readout device of a computer system. A monitor can be in several forms a cathode ray tube CRT , a liquid crystal display LCD , or a flat-panel, full-color display Mouse A manually operated input device for moving or entering positional information and other data or commands by accessing pointing to images on a monitor.
Morphing The transformation of one image into another image. Motherboard Main circuit board of a micro computer that contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices such as display screen, keyboard and disk drive. Multitasking Multitasking can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers and files.
Multithreading It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages.