PDF | The book is an A to Z guide to bee-keeping in the tropics. It is divided into two parts with one part focusing on understanding the bees. The second part. vi | A PRACTICAL MANUAL OF BEEKEEPING. 3 Using the products of the hive and bees. Producing honey. Collecting pollen. Harvesting royal jelly. Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome Beekeeping and sustainable livelihoods.
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unable to get over fears of stings should avoid contact with bees. Most beekeepers in the Mid-Atlantic region are hobbyists. Beekeeping is generally considered. Abstract: This publication discusses various aspects of beekeeping or apiculture, including state inspection It is important that beekeepers have their bees reg-. and beekeeping skills development, has been practically designed to assist these youth training is designed to ensure many participants go into beekeeping.
Minoan clay beehive from Kato Syme, Crete left Lem- 5, 1st row, right and three other fragmentary ones A further find from Kokkino Frydi near Zakros may be the base of an which hung directly down into the container with- upright hive, dating to the LMI period 41 Fig. The open mouth was row, left.
On the two neighbouring islands of Kasos then closed with mud or a ceramic lid or a flat rock to protect the bees from the rain and the heat. A; more, such a set-up rendered the removal of combs Nikolaidis ; Harissis et Mavfofridis Harissis and Mavrofridis ; Attica: Wheler uous replacement of full bars with empty ones, thus ; Cyclades: Rocca , ii, ; Argos: Efthimi- increasing the production of honey32 Fig.
Watrous , 60 and 73 no 17, plate 19e: A photo of the sherds can be found in , ; Protopsaltis Beehives with mov- http: Crane a, , fig. It is It has two vertical loop handles halfway up its walls and a small hole through the centre of its bottom. It has deep cross incisions scoring that cover the entire inner surface The scoring bears no resemblance to that found in Greco-Roman beehives: The appearance of a spout in the lower wall close to the base, on a fragmentary basin with interior crosshatched incisions, from Mochlos Fig.
I believe that the rel- 2nd row: Two belly pieces 3rd row , was characterized as a probable upright have a horizontal handle attachment.
They have been beehive CVIII c, d. If, in fact, this was hives But ethnographic parallels of such upside-down ence of scoring in the interior of potsherds does not placed hives, contrary to the claims of its discoverer, necessary link them to a beehive, since scoring, as do not exist.
It is possible that this vessel was indeed a mentioned above, was used for other types of vessels, top-bar upright hive, similar to the traditional Cretan too. In this case, howev- surface of the vessel. It can also be used for abrasion er, one should explain the low position of the handles. Hypotheses claiming that internal scoring in upright hives was an Since areas at different altitudes or latitudes pro- unconscious habitual practice that remained from the vide florescence at different seasons, and those with construction of horizontal hives or that it can be ex- different rainfall or soil support different bee-plant plained as an attempt to imitate wicker baskets59, are species, in order to increase the production of honey, rather weak.
Migratory beekeep- conclusions that, from the point of view of beekeep- ing also called transhumance or pastoral beekeep- ing, are completely absurd, as, for example, consider- ing was practiced either by land transporting the ing vessels with a very small, inadequate volume, to hives with animals, like mules as recorded for Spain be upright beehives Several other, more reliable, by Pliny HN Migratory beekeeping with mules or a capacity of liters, although some hives are boats was practiced in 3d c.
BCE Egypt: The same practice was ner wall and entrance hole s for the bees, common- recorded in Egypt almost two thousand years later ly measuring cm across A flight hole cut into in Celsus ap. Columella Rust. However, it transporting hives and recorded the migratory bee- is completely unknown, owing to their highly frag- keeping that was practiced in Greece Peloponnesus, mentary condition, if any of the above-mentioned Attica, and Euboea and in Sicily Hybla.
Columella interiorly incised potsherds had one. The small hole Rust. Cair Zen. III SB Paris, vol ii. Letters on Egypt 2nd ed. Giannelos from Marangou L. Bikos in tion. Cycladic Art Museum, Athens, In , were light, but sturdy, such as those made of wood- Della Rocca recorded the transportation of beehives en boards or the woven wicker beehives A bell-like along the coasts of Asia Minor Beehives from Arna- wicker beehive skep was widespread up until re- ia in Chalkidike, Northern Greece, were transferred to cently in Greece, especially in the Chalkidike penin- Mount Athos in springtime However, its existence in ancient gated the gulfs In Ios, Cyclades, they transported Greece has been questioned and it has been sug- the beehives with fishing boats Similar accounts ex- gested that the skep came to the Mediterranean in ist also for France, Belgium, China and Japan, America the 12th c.
Nevertheless, I be- and Romania In China, the boats transporting the lieve that a skep appears in a 6th c. The Grammarian Philoxenus of the the voyage. Precisely the same strategy is described 1st c.
BCE fr. The description of Petronius Sat. That rondutata confirms, in my opinion, the existence of the Minoans transported beehives by boat can be de- skeps in Roman times The beehives mentioned Kyrou , Pritchett , , to have been made of wicker. Just as modern apiarists do, ancient apiarists smoked the bees in order to pacify them Pl. Phdr In conclusion, although no certain archaeological ex- 91 C; Arist. HN This practice is already Egypt, for which, however, we know for certain from pic- depicted on a relief from an Egyptian temple where torial evidence that beekeeping in hives did exist - several horizontal beehives are present as well , which principally pictorial indications point to the conclusion dates to c.
So far, the earliest beeswax residue dates to the certain regions of Greece However, smoking pots Late Minoan IA period and comes from lamps and conical of a particular shape are needed in order to avoid cups found in Mochlos in Crete The fact that in prehis- burning the bees or the beehives made of flammable toric Crete beeswax was used for lighting, which necessi- materials such as wood or wicker and to be able to tated great quantities of beeswax, implies organized bee- direct the smoke more accurately onto the bees Davaras , 40 holding the fuel, such as a general use container, and no.
Patrikianos from Grammenos, , right Early Helladic smoking pot from Archontiko, Macedonia Papan- thimou , fig. The findings of Palamari. Hel- lenic Ministry of Culture. I shall call such an open smoker, a type I smoking top, which served to put the burning material inside, pot.
An example of a type I smoking pot can probably and several small holes in order that the air required be seen in the above-mentioned depiction of c.
However, the safest for the bees and, at the same 2. It is characterized by two large side apertures row, left. The basic functional could have served as a bee smoker of type I. Hellenic to the bees by the movement set up by the breath. Many smoking pots incorporated a handle to be used when the pot became too hot to hold. The type II and III smoker characterizes most post-antique smoking pots, as can be seen in pictures of post- antique smoking pots from Greece and elsewhere Fig.
A variant of a type III smoker is the post- antique one shown in fig. Fragments of tubular vessels, which, as has been suggested, might have been smoking pots, have been found in Franchthi Cave in Argolis In Fig. Albeit without a nozzle, it indeed fulfils the basic properties of the type III smoker described above. The two above-mentioned below. It has one handle on top, four feet below and a smoking pots resemble, in principle, another Early collared socket at its other end.
Similar vessels with 9a, 1st row, right Below this, two stout handles es. Midway between the handles and feet and nearer the large open end are two more pairs of cut-out slots. The smoker from the town has no nozzle but its pointed front end, which has many holes, could serve as a nozzle, a fact that was verified by an archaeological experiment The comparison, however, is disputable The vessels from Ayia Irini are both tall cylinders 35 cm and 28 cm with a hollow base, slit sides and a vertical loop handle attached to one side Fig.
However, neither had traces of burning nor stub feet a fact that makes dubious their usage Fig. The so called corns at the side could actually that all known examples of prehistoric beekeeping be feet and this renders the hypothesis of a smoker smokers from Greece were used exclusively for probable. Another oblong clay tube, semi-circular in harvesting wild honey.
It has been suggested that the section, with a flat base, ascribed to the Late Bronze smokers from Zakros were suitable only for horizontal Age, was found in a tomb in Enkomi, Cyprus Fig. One end is closed and rounded while the whose existence in the Late Minoan period was opposite one is open. There are three perforations already hinted at above while reviewing the evidence along its long sides, three along its upper part and of beehives. However, the Zakros smoker raises the three along its closed end.
A small portion of the chronology of the existence of systematic apiculture upper part is missing. The dimensions are: To this cm, width 11 cm, height 14 cm. This object could have period dates a unique beekeeping toolkit that was indeed functioned as a bee smoker This little the use for threads; Chapouthier , 7.
Bikos in Stamataki et al. Both the jar itself and its contents were broken. This is how Evans describes the findings The Late Minoan structures here to a certain extent intruded on the line of the o. However, recently, I was able to suggest a completely different hypothesis concerning their nature and usage One of them No right The same vessel in ground plan Evans , , fig. Due to its snake-like handles, it is generally identified as paraphernalia for a snake cult But it could have been, instead, a smoking pot since it has many features in common with type III smoking pots, mainly the two tubular openings, which enable the beekeeper to blow on the fuel in the pot through one of them so that the smoke could emerge from the other.
It has a unique feature of two nozzles. The handles, which are necessary for all smoking pots, were snake-like for decorative purposes. Another perforated vessel, with a height of It is probably a smoking pot too, but of a type II Fig.
We should not be surprised by the use of different types of smoking pots within the same region, since such practices are not uncommon: Another utensil found in the jar is a circular object height 10 cm, diameter 25 cm , divided into four parts by four channels and standing on three legs No 8 in Fig.
It could, however, be a honeycomb press Fig. Combs could have been placed in the four compartments between the channels and then manually pressed with a wooden board not preserved. Pressure would Fig. Harissis based on result in honey escaping through the four channels a photo by Rizopoulou-Igoumenidou , A press with channels for the flow of honey was used by traditional beekeepers in Cyprus and in Greece Fig.
I believe, however, that the cups were used as receptors for the excess liquid content of the tube. More specifically, I propose that these vessels served as wax extractors from the combs once honey was extracted The Fig.
The simplest 84 and Columella Rust. The wax, being lighter than the ramic strainer into which the comb was placed, and other comb components, floats in boiled water and with manual pressing the honey was separated from is collected from the surface. The same principle was the wax see for an example see Crane , , fig.
Thus, I For such a Neolithic perforated vessel from the suppose that combs were placed in these Minoan Northern Aegean, see Decavallas He compares it with 10 over a fire alight in vessel No 7 in fig. By putting the comb in the vessel and by applying pres- in Poland for a photo, see Crane , , fig. The vessel from the Knossos a simple linen sac. Filling the tube with boiled water forced the molten wax to rise to the surface, and by deliberately overflowing the container, the wax was gathered in the cups The wax, after cooling, was removed from the cups, having taken their hemispherical form.
The form and the diameter of the cups resemble both traditional and Byzantine vessels, used for the same purpose Fig. Some other vessels No 11, 12, 15, 16 in Fig. Dimopoulou-Rethemiotaki , This dish, in turn, resembles the traditional comb-dish from Kashmir Fig.
I have proposed an alternative interpretation: Several kinds of hornet traps were used by traditional beekeepers in Greece, but all of them had the same working principle: The Metropolitan Museum of sponds to the main body of the cylindrical Minoan vessel. Minoan cylindrical vessel. Aristotle Hist. The vessel was probably placed near the beehives, and when several hornets were trapped inside, the beekeeper would pick it up from its snake-like handle and throw it into the water, thus drowning the hornets.
Vessel No 14 in fig. Similarly, vessel No 10 in fig. The jar itself was probably used for storing honey, a practice that we hear about in the myth about Glaukos, the Fig. Wilkin- jar full of honey Apollodorus Bibl. Honey stored son , scale 1: For pictures of stone vessels supposed to be Minoan Fig.
Crane from Crane , , fig. Patrikianos from Dimopou- lou - Rethemiotaki , Touchais, R. Laffineur, F. Anderson-Stojanovic V. Davaras C. Mochlos IB. Period III. Neopalatial Settlement on the Coast: Bikos A. Davies N.
Ancient Egyptian Paintings. The tomb of Rekhmire at Thebes. Ayer Co. Salem Bosanquet R. The unpublished objects from the Palaikastro excavations Dawkins R. Chapouthier F.
Decavallas O. Sondages au Sud-ouest du Cooking Up the Past: Oxford, Oxbow, p. Christakis K. Cretan Bronze Age Pithoi. Della Rocca abbe. Di Vita A. Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene. Crane E. The world history of beekeeping and honey hunting. Dimopoulou - Rethemiotaki N. The London. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.
Duhoux Y. Studies presented to Cynthia W. Nakassis, J. Gulizio, S. Eckert G. Minoan and Mycenaean symbols revisited. British Archaeological Reports. Evans A. The Palace of Minos. Harissis H. World, 89 2: Minoan crafts tools and techniques. World, 89 3: An introduction. Hatzi E. The Archaeological Museum of Evershed R. Latsis evidence for the use of combed ware pottery vessels as Public Benefit Foundation, Olkos, Athnes.
Journal of Archaeological Science Hayes J. Evershed R. Beeswax in lamps and conical cups Hogarth D. Antiquity, BSA 7, Faure P. Ifantidis M. World 64 2: Francis J. Jones J. Georgiou S.
Ayia Irini: Specialized domestic Kanta A. Excavations of a and industrial pottery. The Archive Building and Associated Finds. Graham A. Kanta A. Karageorghis V.
Hallager, B. Kardara C. AJA 65, Katsouleas S. Koutri S. Mavrofridis G. Kueny G. Kukules Ph. Mazar A. The islands of Karpathos, Saros Hesperia Lembesi A. Leontidis T. Festos e la civilta Minoica. Testo 1, Dietrich Niemeier. Studies in Tavole 1. Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year.
Liakos B. University of Texas at Austin: Programs in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory. Aegaeum Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Moody J. Cadogan, M. Iacovou, K. Kopaka and J. Ancient Island Societies in Athens, Crete and Cyprus, Loukopoulos D. Morris P. Opuscula 7, Research II: Pritchett W. Protopsaltis G. Nikolaidis N. Rambach J. The Minoan Mycenaean Religion Ausgrabungen. Berlin 9. November Helmut and its survival in Greek Religion. Biblo and Kyrieleis ed.
Philipp von Zabern, Rammou A. Ransome H. The sacred Bee. George Allen Nixon L. Reras I. Papaefthimiou-Papanthimou A. Rizopoulou-Igoumenidou E. Hellenistic A. The Plain Wares.
Siebert G. Papagelos I. Mochlos IIB. Period IV. The Pottery. Petropoulos D. Stamataki S. The Mosaics of Jordan. Platon N. Poursat J. Le quartier Mu IV. La poterie du Minoen Moyen Tsountas C. Typaldos-Xydias Tzedakis Y. Minoans and Mycenaeans, Flavours of their time. Production Kapon, Athens. Vandenabeele F. Vitelli K. Franchthi Neolithic Pottery. Classification and ceramic phases 1 and 2. Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece.
Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis. Warren P. Watrous L. Hesperia supl. Kommos III. The late Bronze Age Pottery. Wheler G. A journey into Greece by George Wheler Esq. Spon of Lyons. Zervos C. Neolithique et Minoenne. Zymbragoudakis C. Honey and Beekeeping in the phrase, nofet tsufim. Honey is mentioned in Ugarit in Ancient Near East: In the latter, it appears as one of the foods offered to the gods The importance of honey and beeswax in the attention the biblical prohibition to burn honey on Ancient Near East can be inferred from Egyptian, altar, Leviticus 2: The bee plays a unique role in Canaanite, and Hittite sources.
Textual and pictorial Hittite myths and, in Hittite law, severe punishment sources from ancient Egypt are of particular interest1. Yet The Story of Sinuhe, attributed to the Middle Kingdom no apiary was discovered in the Ancient Near East, 20th century BCE , alludes to the abundance of honey perhaps since the hives were made of perishable and oil in his place of residence in the Land of Canaan; materials, located outside the settlements and were Thutmose III recounted carrying off honey jars as not preserved.
In Classical Greece and the Hellenistic booty following his conquests of Canaan in the 15th period hives were made as fired pottery cylindrical century BCE; in another text, he mentions honey vessels; they are known from various sites, but never jars collected as tribute.
Honey jars were bestowed as royal gifts. Furthermore, there where it was also used as a marine sealant, in the lost- is no biblical mention of beekeeping as a branch of wax metal-casting method, in medicine production, production. However, a textual study conducted by and more. This is the only apiary to be found in an archaeological site in the ancient Near East and the Eastern Mediterranean world.
In this article, I discuss this exceptional discovery of an industrial apiary and its implications to the early history of beekeeping. The mound is located close to fertile land and water sources. Excavations between the years revealed exceptional architecture and abundance of finds mainly from the 10th—9th centuries BCE Strata VI—IV 5. The city was one of the largest in biblical Israel during the th centuries BCE.
The apiary was discovered in the heart of a well planned and densely built urban quarter of Stratum V, Area C, near the northwestern corner of the mound Figs. About thirty beehives were uncovered, Fig. John Camp USA. Nava Panitz-Cohen was the supervi- sor of the main area Area C throughout the seasons and is a co-editor of the final report.
For earlier sum- maries, see Mazar , ;; ; Mazar et al. Mazar and Panitz-Cohen eds. The research and publication of the apiary was supported by a grant of The Eva Crane Foundation.
Much of the present English version is based on trans- lation by Inbal Sammet of the latter article included in Mazar De- Fig. Area C where the apiary was discovered is in the front part of tailed report will appear in Mazar and Panitz-Cohen the picture.
The hives were arranged in three parallel rows, each at least three-tiers high. They were installed in an area that had been deliberately lowered and surrounded by walls on at least three sides. The beehive rows were separated by broad aisles 1. Alltogether, thirty hives were uncovered in the bottom tier, but there must have been many more, as the rows were not preserved Fig.
If all three rows were of identical length, we may assume that the apiary contained about sixty beehives in the bottom tier; since there were three tiers of hives, the apiary could comprise about one hundred eighty hives. The uncovered remains and the proposed reconstruction Fig. The apiary was destroyed violently and suddenly. An 80 cm thick destruction layer containing fallen mud-bricks and charred wood beams covered the beehives and crushed their upper parts Figs.
The hives were no longer used in the subsequent stratum IV of the 9th century BCE when new structures were built over their ruins. The destruc- tion layer that seals the apiary is seen at the back. The first was a chemical analysis of the beehive walls7.
The analysis of the lipid assemblage extracted from two hives pointed to a high correlation between the extraction mixture and the lipid composition that is characteristic of heated beeswax.
This constituted the first scientific proof that the installations we discovered were indeed beehives. The second study focused on identifying pollen found in the soil extracted from the beehives8. The study was undertaken by Dr. The study was conducted by Prof.
In the lowest hive a clay lid was preserved. The third study was dating the apiary using 14C dates measured on charred grain. The samples came from large quantity of charred grain found flowing from a storage jar in the eastern part of the apiary, and charred grain found in destruction layer in the western part of the apiary. Eleven measurements Fig. Isometric view of the apiary as found; from three samples were measured, providing a b: Artist reconstruction of the apiary drawing: Ana Iammim.
A first dated to the 10th and 9th centuries respectively clue to this identification was the remains of a bee we concluded that the apiary was in use during the in one of these lumps that was observed during the last decades of the 10th and early decades of the 9th excavations. To date, these are et al. Details will be present- the only ancient bee remains that have ever been ed in Mazar and Streit, in press.
For additional dates discovered in the Ancient Near East. The evidence to build beehives near houses or even in basements was consistent with the anatomy of the sub-species below a raised ground floor Apis mellifera anatoliaca Anatolian honey bee , and unlike that of the Apis mellifera syriaca Syrian honey Based on ethnographic evidence, we may assume bee , which is typical of the Southern Levant.
The that each hive of this type could yield 3—5 kg of honey Anatolian Honey bee is particularly productive and and 0. This bee is adjusted to the climatic conditions been about kg of honey and kg of beeswax of Turkey: This is not probable.
Another possibility nature. And if so: We suggested is well known from traditional societies across trade along the Phoenician coast perhaps by ships, the Mediterranean basin and eastern Asia Until through port towns like Tyre or Akko.
In contrast, recently, it was common in Egypt to build walls to a Simon suggested that the swarms arrived through height of ten or more tiers of beehives There Middle East including northern Iran, the Gulf and is no archaeological evidence for such trade except eastern Africa Fig. Stratum Xa15 and the vague biblical allusions to horse with the local Syrian honey bee drones. How this was trade between Egypt and Que Cilicia in modern-day done?
Perhaps new swarms had to be brought annually. Importing bees swarms from the first half of the 8th century BCE a century and a such a distance raises many questions. Volcani Institute for advise concerning beekeeping 2. Nimshi is mentioned in the inscription says, among other things: They collect family may have also been the one to build the apiary honey and wax — and I know how to and profit from it. If indeed there were active hives, the Zagros Mountains in Iran or the eastern Taurus the number of bees in the city would have reached Mountains, about four hundred kilometers north a million to a million and a half!
How is urban life of his seat. It is possible that in this case, too, the maintained under these conditions?
This question imported bees were Anatolian. This text sheds light is not a simple one to answer.
Written sources on the plausibility of importing bees from faraway particularly Roman and Talmudic ones , as well as during the Iron Age. Since beehives were considered its confines. Two finds attest to this practice: It appears that only petals. The cult practices must have been intended a centralized royal or municipal governing body or a to increase the yield of the apiary. This has copper-mining sites in Timna in southern Israel and in implications for our understanding of the social and Cyprus and in olive oil industry at Tel Miqne-Ekron.
Beeswax as foreign? Evidence from a paleo-magnetic Could it be that industrial apiaries of the type found study conducted by Dr. Biblical the area of the apiary, starting fire and bringing tradition tells of the splendid copper utensils installed down the mud-brick walls surrounding the apiary.
Even if the story to see the apiary in flames. While this is an intriguing fields of natural sciences and ethnography, combined hypothesis, it cannot be proved. These intertwine create a comprehensive It is difficult to assess how long the beehives were picture, telling the tale of an aspect of ancient in use. They did, however, meet their end in a fierce economy that was until recently obscure. The destruction of the apiary and the fact that conquest of the city by Shoshenq I biblical Shishak it was not subsequently reconstructed indicate that ca.
Kmt Eshel and Y. The Quest for the Perfect Hive. New York. The Tears of Re. Beekeeping in Ancient Hanan Eshe. Levy, T. Ben Tor, A. New Jerusalem. Ben-Yosef, E. Jerusalem, Bloch, G. Master, B. Faust, L. White and J. PNAS 25 article No. New York, Bruins, H. Van der Plicht, and A. Science April Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel 4: Crane, E.
The Archaeology of Beekeeping.
Mazar, A. Ziffer, Crane, E. Tel Aviv. Dalley, S. Plicht, J. Levy and T. Vetus Testamentum 56 Radiocarbon Dating. Archaeology, Text and Science. London, Forti, T. From Realia to Mazar,A. Hurowitz Honey: Yona, Wisdom, Her Pillars are Seven: Near Eastern Archaeology The Hoffner, H. A Alimenta Hethaeorum. Food Excavations at Tel Rehov, Volumes I —VI. Production in Hittite Asia Minor.
New Haven. Chapter 48 in: The Excavations at Tel Rehov, Volume VI. Neufeld, E. Ugarit Forschungen, Serpico, M. Nicholson and I. Shaw, Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Cambridge, Simon, Z. In ed. Budapest, Weinstein-Evron, M. Palynology 40 3: Tantalizing evidence has suggested that large quantities of beeswax were used for lost wax casting of a variety of objects found near the Dead Sea dating to BCE. These first documented hives Fig. By the end of the Middle Ages, the with bees comes from a rock wall painting in eastern necessary innovations that led to rational beekeeping Spain near Bicorp.
This Mesolithic painting, which were in practice in the Mediterranean region. Chimpanzees 1. Robbing bees is not beekeeping; rather, it is an have been observed to tear into wild colonies of bees opportunistic activity carried out to take advantage to get to the honey and the grubs.
It has also been of a calorie-rich food2. When this was stings that their robbing may have elicited. Among these objects were copper beekeeping. There is considerable of moist sand or clay. In the would then be poured into the mold to produce a British Museum in London is a Middle Kingdom copper version of the wax model.
In the New Kingdom tomb of Rekhmire, being practiced, as the wax could have been obtained an 18th Dynasty vizier, there is a painting showing by robbing wild colonies3. About a century after the construction of vessels Fig. In , One of the most famous beekeeping reliefs in in a room adjacent to the central obelisk, Ludwig Egypt is from the 26th Dynasty tomb of Pabasa. These horizontal hives are of the reliefs he found is the oldest evidence of more similar to the hives carved in the Old Kingdom beekeeping Fig.
They also The bas-relief, from left to right, shows four document the continued value that the Egyptians scenes: Several specific beekeeping titles have been documented, ranging from beekeeper through chief beekeeper, overseer of the beekeepers, and overseer of the beekeepers of all the lands, and including sealers of honey, collectors of honey, and temple beekeepers.
The implied hierarchy of the titles and the existence of a scene showing beekeeping activities being supervised by the vizier essentially the prime minister, who in turn answered to the pharaoh document that beekeeping was a state-run enterprise that was important to Egyptian society9.
Horizontal hive beekeeping was not restricted to Egypt in the ancient world. Whether the similarities represent an exchange of beekeeping practices between Egypt and Tel Rehov is unknown, but Tel Rehov is mentioned in Egyptian reliefs going back to the 18th Dynasty, and the town remained loyal to Egypt during the reign of Seti I in the Nineteenth Dynasty, when other towns were Fig.
It is also mentioned in the relief of Shoshenq Pabasa. Photograph by Gene Kritsky. The interior of these hives was incised with patterns of grooves to aid in the attachment of the comb to the hives. The pottery lid of the hive included a small bee entrance, and was affixed to the hive body with a stick fastened to the front of the hive with rope or leather thongs tied around the lip of the hive Photograph by the walls that they will not be shaken Gene Kritsky.
In this method, a would be placed between the hive and the lid if the second and a third row are placed hive needed to be enlarged.
As in Egypt, the origins of below it at an interval, and it is said beekeeping in Greece likely date to long before these that it is better to reduce the number hives were made. A small pottery smoker Fig. At the middle of found in Sesklo, a Neolithic village in central Greece, the hive small openings are made on dates to at least BCE. However, hives were not the right and left, by which the bees found at the site and the smoker if that was its actual may enter; and on the back, covers purpose may have been used for robbing bees.
The best hives No hives survive from Ancient Rome, but Roman are those made of bark, and the worst authors did record that horizontal hives were those made of earthenware, because constructed of local materials. Varro12, writing in the the latter are most severely affected by second century CE, recorded the following: Illuminated manuscripts over the next still others fashion them of fennel thousand years document that beekeepers were stalks, building them square, about using horizontal boxes, upright boxes, horizontal three feet long and one foot deep, round hives, and upright hives made of cork.
Wicker but making them narrower when skeps were likely in use in more northern regions13, All such hives in themselves. The very narrow middle is that they may horizontal hives used by the ancient beekeepers of imitate the shape of the bees. Those the Fertile Crescent and Greece were the precursors that are made of withies are smeared, of the rectangular box hives described by Varro from inside and out, with cow-dung, so ancient Rome.
Regardless of when the use of bars began, their use was not widely known outside of the Mediterranean region until the 17th century. A frame for use inside a hive was described by a beekeeper known as J. Innovative beekeepers in the Ukraine, Germany, France, England, and the United States incorporated frames in a variety of hives, before L.
Langstroth incorporated the critical spacing in that resulted in the moveable frame hive20, The first three innovations that were required for the development of modern beekeeping -rectangular Fig. Even though the use of frames and spacing by the 11th century and beekeepers in Italy stacked developed in other parts of the world, the first steps tightly fitted boxes in the 16th century Fig.
The oldest use of bars was by the Greeks, whose hive was illustrated by Wheler in Fig. The Grecian hive was a basket hive that tapered from a wider opening at the top to a narrower base. Across the top were placed wooden slats to which the bees attached their comb. The bees treated the inward- sloping sides of the basket as the bottom of the hive and did not attach the comb to the sides of the basket, making it a simple process to lift the bar and the attached comb from the hive.
This was being practiced by the 17th century, but when it began is a matter of speculation. Pots of the same shape as the basket illustrated by Wheler were known dating back to BCE. Head, M. The entry of venom into the body from bee-stings may also be hindered and reduced by protective clothing that allows the wearer to remove stings and venom sacs with a simple tug on the clothing. Although the stinger is barbed, a worker bee is less likely to become lodged into clothing than human skin.
If a beekeeper is stung by a bee, there are many protective measures that should be taken in order to make sure the affected area does not become too irritated. The first cautionary step that should be taken following a bee sting is removing the stinger without squeezing the attached venom glands. A quick scrape with a fingernail is effective and intuitive. This step is effective in making sure that the venom injected does not spread, so the side effects of the sting will go away sooner.
Washing the affected area with soap and water is also a good way to stop the spread of venom. The last step that needs to be taken is to apply ice or a cold compress to the stung area. The natural beekeeping movement believes that bee hives are weakened by modern beekeeping and agricultural practices, such as crop spraying, hive movement, frequent hive inspections, artificial insemination of queens, routine medication, and sugar water feeding.
Practitioners of "natural beekeeping" tend to use variations of the top-bar hive, which is a simple design that retains the concept of having a movable comb without the use of frames or a foundation.
The horizontal top-bar hive, as championed by Marty Hardison, Michael Bush, Philip Chandler, Dennis Murrell and others, can be seen as a modernization of hollow log hives, with the addition of wooden bars of specific width from which bees hang their combs. Its widespread adoption in recent years can be attributed to the publication in of The Barefoot Beekeeper  by Philip Chandler, which challenged many aspects of modern beekeeping and offered the horizontal top-bar hive as a viable alternative to the ubiquitous Langstroth-style movable-frame hive.
Related to natural beekeeping, urban beekeeping is an attempt to revert to a less industrialized way of obtaining honey by utilizing small-scale colonies that pollinate urban gardens.
Urban apiculture has undergone a renaissance in the first decade of the 21st century, and urban beekeeping is seen by many as a growing trend.
Some have found that "city bees" are actually healthier than "rural bees" because there are fewer pesticides and greater biodiversity in the urban gardens.
An environment of year-round, uninterrupted bloom creates an ideal environment for colony reproduction. Urban beekeepers are testing modern types of beehives, testing for urban contest and ease of use. In the FlowHive appeared and in Beeing , a hive made in Italy, that allows the beekeeper to extract honey without having contact with the bees.
Modern beekeepers have experimented with raising bees indoors, in a controlled environment or in indoor observation hives. This may be done for reasons of space and monitoring, or in the off-season.
In the off-season, large commercial beekeepers may move colonies to "wintering" warehouses, with fixed temperature, light and humidity. This helps the bees remain healthy, but relatively dormant. These relatively dormant or "wintered" bees survive on stored honey, and new bees are not born.
Experiments in raising bees for longer durations indoors have looked into more detailed and varying environment controls. In , MIT 's Synthetic Apiary project simulated springtime inside a closed environment, for a number of hives over the course of a winter. They provided food sources and simulated long days, and saw activity and reproduction levels comparable to the levels seen outdoors in warm weather.
They concluded that such an indoor apiary could be sustained year-round if needed. The queen is the only sexually mature female in the hive and all of the female worker bees and male drones are her offspring. The queen may live for up to three years or more and may be capable of laying half a million eggs or more in her lifetime.
At the peak of the breeding season, late spring to summer, a good queen may be capable of laying 3, eggs in one day, more than her own body weight. This would be exceptional however; a prolific queen might peak at 2, eggs a day, but a more average queen might lay just 1, eggs per day. The queen is raised from a normal worker egg, but is fed a larger amount of royal jelly than a normal worker bee, resulting in a radically different growth and metamorphosis.
The queen influences the colony by the production and dissemination of a variety of pheromones or "queen substances".
One of these chemicals suppresses the development of ovaries in all the female worker bees in the hive and prevents them from laying eggs. The queen emerges from her cell after 15 days of development and she remains in the hive for 3—7 days before venturing out on a mating flight. Mating flight is otherwise known as "nuptial flight".
Her first orientation flight may only last a few seconds, just enough to mark the position of the hive. Subsequent mating flights may last from 5 minutes to 30 minutes, and she may mate with a number of male drones on each flight.
Over several matings, possibly a dozen or more, the queen receives and stores enough sperm from a succession of drones to fertilize hundreds of thousands of eggs. If she does not manage to leave the hive to mate—possibly due to bad weather or being trapped in part of the hive—she remains infertile and becomes a drone layer , incapable of producing female worker bees.
Worker bees sometimes kill a non-performing queen and produce another. Without a properly performing queen, the hive is doomed. Mating takes place at some distance from the hive and often several hundred feet in the air; it is thought that this separates the strongest drones from the weaker ones, ensuring that only the fastest and strongest drones get to pass on their genes.
Most of the bees in a hive are female worker bees. At the height of summer when activity in the hive is frantic and work goes on non-stop, the life of a worker bee may be as short as 6 weeks; in late autumn, when no brood is being raised and no nectar is being harvested, a young bee may live for 16 weeks, right through the winter.
Over the course of their lives, worker bees' duties are dictated by age. For the first few weeks of their lifespan, they perform basic chores within the hive: Later, they may ventilate the hive or guard the entrance.
Older workers leave the hive daily, weather permitting, to forage for nectar, pollen, water, and propolis. Drones are the largest bees in the hive except for the queen , at almost twice the size of a worker bee. Note in the picture that they have much larger eyes than the workers have, presumably to better locate the queen during the mating flight.
They do not work, do not forage for pollen or nectar, are unable to sting, and have no other known function than to mate with new queens and fertilize them on their mating flights. A bee colony generally starts to raise drones a few weeks before building queen cells so they can supersede a failing queen or prepare for swarming.
When queen-raising for the season is over, bees in colder climates drive drones out of the hive to die, biting and tearing their legs and wings. A domesticated bee colony is normally housed in a rectangular hive body, within which eight to ten parallel frames house the vertical plates of honeycomb that contain the eggs, larvae, pupae and food for the colony.
If one were to cut a vertical cross-section through the hive from side to side, the brood nest would appear as a roughly ovoid ball spanning 5—8 frames of comb. The two outside combs at each side of the hive tend to be exclusively used for long-term storage of honey and pollen.
Within the central brood nest, a single frame of comb typically has a central disk of eggs, larvae and sealed brood cells that may extend almost to the edges of the frame. Immediately above the brood patch an arch of pollen -filled cells extends from side to side, and above that again a broader arch of honey-filled cells extends to the frame tops.
The pollen is protein-rich food for developing larvae, while honey is also food but largely energy rich rather than protein rich. The nurse bees that care for the developing brood secrete a special food called " royal jelly " after feeding themselves on honey and pollen.
The amount of royal jelly fed to a larva determines whether it develops into a worker bee or a queen. Apart from the honey stored within the central brood frames, the bees store surplus honey in combs above the brood nest.
In modern hives the beekeeper places separate boxes, called "supers", above the brood box, in which a series of shallower combs is provided for storage of honey.
This enables the beekeeper to remove some of the supers in the late summer, and to extract the surplus honey harvest, without damaging the colony of bees and its brood nest below. If all the honey is "stolen", including the amount of honey needed to survive winter, the beekeeper must replace these stores by feeding the bees sugar or corn syrup in autumn.
The development of a bee colony follows an annual cycle of growth that begins in spring with a rapid expansion of the brood nest, as soon as pollen is available for feeding larvae. Some production of brood may begin as early as January, even in a cold winter, but breeding accelerates towards a peak in May in the northern hemisphere , producing an abundance of harvesting bees synchronized to the main nectar flow in that region. Each race of bees times this build-up slightly differently, depending on how the flora of its original region blooms.
Some regions of Europe have two nectar flows: Other regions have only a single nectar flow. The skill of the beekeeper lies in predicting when the nectar flow will occur in his area and in trying to ensure that his colonies achieve a maximum population of harvesters at exactly the right time. The key factor in this is the prevention or skillful management of the swarming impulse.
If a colony swarms unexpectedly and the beekeeper does not manage to capture the resulting swarm, he is likely to harvest significantly less honey from that hive, since he has lost half his worker bees at a single stroke. If, however, he can use the swarming impulse to breed a new queen but keep all the bees in the colony together, he maximizes his chances of a good harvest.
It takes many years of learning and experience to be able to manage all these aspects successfully, though owing to variable circumstances many beginners often achieve a good honey harvest. All colonies are totally dependent on their queen, who is the only egg-layer. However, even the best queens live only a few years and one or two years longevity is the norm.
She can choose whether or not to fertilize an egg as she lays it; if she does so, it develops into a female worker bee; if she lays an unfertilized egg it becomes a male drone. She decides which type of egg to lay depending on the size of the open brood cell she encounters on the comb. In a small worker cell, she lays a fertilized egg; if she finds a larger drone cell, she lays an unfertilized drone egg. All the time that the queen is fertile and laying eggs she produces a variety of pheromones, which control the behavior of the bees in the hive.
These are commonly called queen substance , but there are various pheromones with different functions. As the queen ages, she begins to run out of stored sperm, and her pheromones begin to fail. Inevitably, the queen begins to falter, and the bees decide to replace her by creating a new queen from one of her worker eggs.
They may do this because she has been damaged lost a leg or an antenna , because she has run out of sperm and cannot lay fertilized eggs has become a "drone laying queen" , or because her pheromones have dwindled to where they cannot control all the bees in the hive. At this juncture, the bees produce one or more queen cells by modifying existing worker cells that contain a normal female egg.
They then pursue one of two ways to replace the queen: Supersedure is highly valued as a behavioral trait by beekeepers. A hive that supersedes its old queen does not lose any stock. Instead it creates a new queen and the old one fades away or is killed when the new queen emerges.
In these hives, the bees produce just one or two queen cells, characteristically in the center of the face of a broodcomb. Swarm cell production involves creating many queen cells, typically a dozen or more.
These are located around the edges of a broodcomb, often at the sides and the bottom. Once either process has begun, the old queen leaves the hive with the hatching of the first queen cells. She leaves accompanied by a large number of bees, predominantly young bees wax-secretors , who form the basis of the new hive. Scouts are sent out from the swarm to find suitable hollow trees or rock crevices.
As soon as one is found, the entire swarm moves in. Within a matter of hours, they build new wax brood combs, using honey stores that the young bees have filled themselves with before leaving the old hive. Only young bees can secrete wax from special abdominal segments, and this is why swarms tend to contain more young bees. Often a number of virgin queens accompany the first swarm the "prime swarm" , and the old queen is replaced as soon as a daughter queen mates and begins laying.
Otherwise, she is quickly superseded in the new home. Different sub-species of Apis mellifera exhibit differing swarming characteristics. In general the more northerly black races are said to swarm less and supersede more, whereas the more southerly yellow and grey varieties are said to swarm more frequently.
The truth is complicated because of the prevalence of cross-breeding and hybridization of the sub species. Some beekeepers may monitor their colonies carefully in spring and watch for the appearance of queen cells, which are a dramatic signal that the colony is determined to swarm. This swarm looks for shelter. A beekeeper may capture it and introduce it into a new hive, helping meet this need. Otherwise, it returns to a feral state, in which case it finds shelter in a hollow tree, excavation, abandoned chimney, or even behind shutters.
A small after-swarm has less chance of survival and may threaten the original hive's survival if the number of individuals left is unsustainable. When a hive swarms despite the beekeeper's preventative efforts, a good management practice is to give the reduced hive a couple frames of open brood with eggs. This helps replenish the hive more quickly and gives a second opportunity to raise a queen if there is a mating failure.
Each race or sub-species of honey bee has its own swarming characteristics. Italian bees are very prolific and inclined to swarm; Northern European black bees have a strong tendency to supersede their old queen without swarming.
These differences are the result of differing evolutionary pressures in the regions where each sub-species evolved. When a colony accidentally loses its queen, it is said to be "queenless". The workers realize that the queen is absent after as little as an hour, as her pheromones fade in the hive.
The colony cannot survive without a fertile queen laying eggs to renew the population, so the workers select cells containing eggs aged less than three days and enlarge these cells dramatically to form "emergency queen cells".
These appear similar to large peanut-like structures about an inch long that hang from the center or side of the brood combs. The developing larva in a queen cell is fed differently from an ordinary worker-bee; in addition to the normal honey and pollen, she receives a great deal of royal jelly, a special food secreted by young "nurse bees" from the hypopharyngeal gland. This special food dramatically alters the growth and development of the larva so that, after metamorphosis and pupation, it emerges from the cell as a queen bee.
The queen is the only bee in a colony which has fully developed ovaries, and she secretes a pheromone which suppresses the normal development of ovaries in all her workers. Beekeepers use the ability of the bees to produce new queens to increase their colonies in a procedure called splitting a colony. To do this, they remove several brood combs from a healthy hive, taking care to leave the old queen behind. These combs must contain eggs or larvae less than three days old and be covered by young nurse bees , which care for the brood and keep it warm.
These brood combs and attendant nurse bees are then placed into a small "nucleus hive" with other combs containing honey and pollen. As soon as the nurse bees find themselves in this new hive and realize they have no queen, they set about constructing emergency queen cells using the eggs or larvae they have in the combs with them.
The common agents of disease that affect adult honey bees include fungi , bacteria , protozoa , viruses , parasites , and poisons. The gross symptoms displayed by affected adult bees are very similar, whatever the cause, making it difficult for the apiarist to ascertain the causes of problems without microscopic identification of microorganisms or chemical analysis of poisons.
The tunnels they create are lined with silk, which entangles and starves emerging bees. Destruction of honeycombs also results in honey leaking and being wasted. A healthy hive can manage wax moths, but weak colonies, unoccupied hives, and stored frames can be decimated.
Small hive beetle Aethina tumida is native to Africa but has now spread to most continents. It is a serious pest among honey bees unadapted to it. Varroa destructor , the Varroa mite, is an established pest of two species of honey bee through many parts of the world, and is blamed by many researchers as a leading cause of CCD. Acarapis woodi , the tracheal mite, infests the trachea of honey bees. According to U. FAO data , the world's beehive stock rose from around 50 million in to around 83 million in , which comes to about 1.
Average annual growth has accelerated to 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Play media.
Further information: Main article: Top-bar hive.
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